In terms of dimensionally stable anodes (DSA) traditionally used in industries, the materials can be divided into three categories: precious metals (e.g. platinum), graphite, alloy of lead. However, platinum is too expensive. In high current electrolysis, graphite anodes and lead alloy anodes corrode, and feature higher oxygen over-potential, lower electrochemical catalysis, and higher energy consumption. Most important of all, toxic lead anodes will dissolve in solution, resulting in a secondary pollution and the coating degradation.
ULTRANANO electrodes use titanium as the substrate. The substrate is coated with the nano-sized ceramic film (ruthenium, iridium oxide), which is called dimensionally stable anodes (DSA). The films have the properties of large surface area & high electro-catalysis. Therefore the evolution of oxygen or chlorine is achieved at a low stable potential.

●Chlorine evolution systems (acidic systems)

The titanium substrate is coated with ruthenium oxide, which is so-called the insoluble anode or dimensionally stable anode (DSA). Ruthenium oxide coated titanium anodes feature good electro-catalysis of oxygen evolution, about ten-year lifecycle, but they are not suitable for oxygen evolution systems.

●Oxygen evolution systems (basic systems)
Experimental studies have shown that iridium oxide coated titanium anodes are considered to be the best for oxygen evolution systems at present. Iridium oxide coated titanium anodes feature lower oxygen evolution potential (than lead anodes by 0.5 V), better electrochemical catalysis, almost no dissolution & precipitation of electrodes, no secondary pollution and the same lifecycle as the lead alloy insoluble anodes.
Generally, the applications of electrochemistry range from electroplating/ electrolysis, batteries to supercapacitors (electric double layer capacitors, EDLC). Except for ULTRAPACK supercapacitors mentioned before, ULTRANANO super conductive electrodes can also be used in electroplating and electrolysis, which is shown in the following chart.

DSA-type electrodes for chlorine evolution
 

For chlor-alkali electrolysis industry

 

Production of caustic soda

Production of caustic potash

Production of Sodium chlorate

Production of sodium hypochlorite

For non chlor-alkali electrolysis industry

Electrolytic extraction of nonferrous metals

Seas and oceans

DSA-type electrodes for oxygen evolution
 

Steel electroplating in Iron and steel industries

 

Galvanizing, electrolytic galvanizing line (EGL)

Tinning

Cooperplating

Electrolytic pickling of (stainless) steel

The pretreatment of zinc & cooper plating, the cleaning of stainless steel

Continuous production of metal foil

Cooper foil

Nickle foil、iron foil

Electrochemical treatment (oxidation) of the surface of aluminum foil, sheet metal

Chemical treatment (oxidation) the surface of aluminum foil

Electrolytic extraction and recycling of non-ferrous metals

Copper electrolytic extraction

Electrolytic extraction & recycling of precious metals, manganese, chromium, … etc.

Acid/base recovery

Electrolysis of Glauber's salts

Electrolysis of organic salts

Organic electrolysis

Electrolytic synthesis of organic compounds

Industrial electroplating

Various types of electroplating

Auxiliary electroplating electrodes

Cathodic protection

The prevention of the iron and steel structures from water & soil corrosion by passing an electrical current through iron & steel

Electrodialysis

Reduction, concentration, separation of salts in aqueous solutions

Functional electrodes
 

Platinum coated electrodes

 

Industrial hard chrome electroplating

Acid/ alkaline ionic water - acid/ alkaline ionic water generator

Lead dioxide electrodes

Steel sheet plating in the iron and steel industry – the production of tin-free steel sheets

Industrial electroplating - hard chrome plating

Electrolytic oxidation - electrolytic production of oxidants for chemical indursties